Literature review on education system in pakistan

Special grants can be provided to the provinces where the literacy rate is low.

Analysis of the problems of primary education system in Pakistan: critical review of literature

Pakistan is not the only country which is facing challenges regarding promotion of literacy and meeting EFA and MDGs commitments. Education remains a subject which is paid least attention in the whole South Asian region. UNDP report suggests that there has been an improvement in other elements of human development such as life expectancy, per capita income and human development index value in past 3 years ; but there has been no progress in the number of schooling years.

The expected average for years of schooling in was In the year the expected average of number of years increased to Regional cooperation mechanism can also be developed to promote literacy in South Asian region. Sharing success stories, making country-specific modifications and their implementation can generate positive results.

Similarly, to make the youth of the country an asset, attention should also be paid to vocational and technical training. Your e-mail address will not be published. Save my name, e-mail, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Enter your email address below to receive updates each time we publish new content.

A fragmented OIC? These include the Saudi-Iran rivalry, Saudi-Qatar rivalry as well as the competing interests and priorities of various member states. The Saudi Mediation. Saudi Arabia is gradually expanding its influence in South Asia not just with deals worth billions of dollars, but also through offering mediation between Pakistan and India in the wake of the recent escalation between the two nuclear rivals. Since February 17, Saudi Arabia has one way or the other tried to defuse tensions between […]. The conference comprised of four working sessions in addition to inaugural session.

Ambassador […]. CPEC dividends. The BRI focus is on economics and regional connectivity.


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Pakistan as part of CPEC is central to global developments. Pakistan and China relations irrespective […].

Geo Pakistan - Education System in Finland

If one closely monitors, writing adversely against Pakistan has also become a trend within certain Western intellectuals. Pakistan and its Villains. Pakistan had been intermittently governed by the […]. Step 2: Complete the Biodata Form with accurate information. Introduction: The relationship between China and Pakistan can be best described as promising, flourishing and turning out to be a success story by meeting all the requirements of changing situations.

Over the years, this unique friendship has transformed into a strong strategic partnership aspiring to have robust economic cooperation and increasing people to people contacts. Joshua T. For details, […]. Eradication of Corruption in Pakistan — Need of Hour. Andrew Corruption is not merely financial embezzlement or earning money through bribery or fraud but it means moral deterioration and the use of corrupt practices. Acts which are tantamount to provide undue favor, abuse of public office and patronization also come under corruption.

This […]. She was told to come back later, but before she was supposed to return, the family moved again. Many families are too poor to afford even the costs associated with attending a government school, let alone paying for private education. Poverty drives many families to put their children to work, which often keeps them out of school.

Other girls are kept home to do housework. Families short on resources often decide to educate sons and not daughters. An insecure environment, where sexual harassment is a regular experience for many girls, fear of kidnapping and other crime is pervasive and well-founded, and conflict and attacks on education pose very real threats, prompts many parents to keep their girls home from school.

Fear of violence and harassment may make what would otherwise be feasible walks to school seem too far. By fifth grade, there are only four girls left. For many families, the most fundamental barrier to education is financial. I was working in a garment factory, so my daughter had to cook. But she felt overwhelmed by financial difficulties. Her husband works in a chewing gum factory. At the end of the month, we are always out [of money] and wonder what to do—it is all gone. I want a school for girls who belong to poor families.

Bad luck, failed crops, illness or a death can easily put education out of reach. Muskaan was in seventh grade when her father, a construction worker, fell from a mosque building site and died. Her mother struggles to support her seven daughters and three sons. An uncle helping the family financially refused to pay for the girls to study. As children get older, they are sometimes obliged to pay their own school fees if they wish to continue studying.

Asima, 16, has an year-old brother who works full-time, pays his own school fees, and is in 12 th grade. Asima just completed 10 th grade and wants to become a doctor. Lack of future employment opportunities discourages some families from educating girls.


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  6. A system dynamics study of Pakistan's education system: Consequences for governance;
  7. Many poor families move between urban and rural areas as a survival strategy. Families living in rural areas sometimes travel to the cities where work may be more plentiful.

    Literature Review Of Industrialised Building System Construction Essay

    Families settled in the cities often return to the village where they have roots for weddings, funerals, and other visits. Noor said the frequent moves happened because the family wanted to live in the village but were repeatedly forced back to the city by lack of work in the village. Her father paints houses; in the city her mother finds work as a maid. Noor began school at ages 3, 10, and 13, but only reached second grade, because of disruption.

    At the age of 14, when the family moved to Karachi again, she gave up. Families living between two locations may be able to access schools in one place, but not the other. Sheherbano is 15 and just finishing fifth grade. She was behind in her studies because she left school for several years when her family returned from Karachi to their village. Children switching schools are sometimes obliged to repeat grades. She completed first grade in Karachi, but when her family returned to the village had to redo first grade. This time Rania did not go back to school because the family viewed the stay as temporary and rent in Karachi was too high to leave money for education costs.

    She hopes to attend second grade after the family returns to the village.

    Literature Review Of Industrialised Building System Construction Essay

    Many children, girls and boys, are out of school because they are working. Sometimes they are engaged in paid work, which for girls often consists of home-based industries, such as sewing, embroidery, or assembling small items.

    Other children—almost always girls—are kept home to do housework in the family home. The pressure to take on housework drives many girls out of school, especially when their mother works outside of the home. Basooma has three siblings, two brothers and a younger sister. All her siblings studied, but Basooma was told she was needed for housework. Their mother works as a maid. Often one girl in the family sees her education sacrificed to housework, while others study. When Nadia was 17 and in ninth grade, however, a death in the family prompted a visit to their village.

    While there, Sahar Gul liked the village school, and their parents agreed for her to stay with extended family and study. Left to do the housework alone back in Karachi, Nadia could no longer manage both that and studying. Their parents sent Nadia to seamstress training, and she continued to do all the housework. Eldest daughters often bear the brunt of housework.

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    Education System in Pakistan (12222 Research)

    Her younger siblings are all studying, and her older brother completed 10 th grade, but Rabia quit fourth grade. I have to take care of all the younger siblings and the house. When older daughters marry, the responsibility for housework often shifts from them to a younger sister, in turn pushing her out of school. Parween attended school from age 10 to 13, completing second grade before she was forced to drop out and take on household work after her three older sisters married at ages 17 or Parween described her daily routine of cleaning the house, washing clothes, and preparing meals for her parents and her two brothers.

    Child labor remains widespread in Pakistan, though exact figures are hard to come by. The International Labour Organization cites estimates that almost 13 percent of children aged 10 to 14 years are in employment, rising to 33 percent among children ages 15 to Experts pointed to lack of effort by the government to end harmful child labor.

    If the government supported the family, then the child could go to school.